This is the original print version and is badly obsolete. See our real site at www.kungfu-guide.com.#28 (Prod #166213) "EMPTY PAGES OF A DEAD BOOK"
Teleplay By:: Charles A. McDaniel
Directed By:: John Llewellyn Moxey (also #32 & 34)
First Broadcast: ABC, JANUARY 10, 1974
Guest Stars: Robert Foxworth, Slim Pickens, Doreen Lang, Nate Esformes, Bruce Carradine (also #53)
In New Mexico Caine gets involved with a young Texas Ranger who is trying to fulfill his father's mission to bring in outlaws whose names were listed in a book. Local authorities in Dos Rio, however, believe former outlaws who accuse the Ranger and Caine of murdering one of the men whose name was in that book.
- "'You a cook?' 'No.'" - Caine
- "'Why do we have laws?' - Kan 'To help us live in harmony.'" - Young Caine
- "Strengthen the discipline of the spirit by purifying the body." - Kan
- "A man may die from a hunger of the body. But whole nations have fallen from that of the spirit. Discipline. Discipline cures." - Master Kan
- "I am not afraid." - Caine
- "I thought he was forgiven." - Caine, on someone who was pardoned
- "I could not say what I did not see." - Caine
- "Does not the law serve the truth?" - Caine
- "'I'll pray for you, Chinaman...''Thank you.'" - Caine, without even a trace of irony or sarcasm
- "You must assist the law to serve justice." - Master Kan
- "That Chinaman - I've never seen anything like it. He's got the fastest hands I've ever seen." - about Caine
- "I told what I saw." - Caine
- "If we are still, perhaps they will not [find us]." - Caine
- "You have told the truth." - Caine
- "I have done a...wrong to you both...By leading you to attend only to the letter of the law and not respect its meaning. I bow to you both." - Master Kan to young Caine and another student
- "He will die if we do not get him to a doctor...If we let him lie here, we will be murderers." - Caine
- "We have told the truth." - Caine
- "You owe me nothing." - Caine
(Starting with the following episode, John Furia stopped being a producer and soon was replaced by Herman Miller, who, in writing the first three episodes, developed the series; and Kam Yuen became Kung Fu adviser)
#29 (Prod #166214) "A DREAM WITHIN A DREAM"
Teleplay By:: John T. Dugan (also #20, 34, 40, 45, 46 & 57)
Directed By:: Richard Lang (also 5,17,19,22,24,27,31,33,35,37-39,42,45- 6)
First Broadcast: ABC, JANUARY 17, 1974
Guest Stars: John Drew Barrymore, Ruth Roman, Tina Louise, Sorrell Booke Special Guest Star: Howard Duff (also #41)
Caine is not believed when he claims he saw a man hanging from a tree on the trail but later he is accused of murdering of that man.
- "It is the truth." - Caine, when he is doubted
- Victory can be insubstantial. - Master Kan (not a direct quote)
- "Does not the value lie in what one does with either [victory or defeat]." - Master Kan, after speaking of the insubstantial nature of both
- "I am troubled." - Caine
- "I have done nothing." - Caine
- "I am puzzled." - Caine
- "A man, like any other." - Caine, when asked what kind of man he is
- "I cannot say." - Caine, when asked to speculate without facts
- "Beauty is constant; as is the truth. Seek and find what is the truth." - Master Kan
- "'It has been said that a man is three things. What he thinks he is, what others think he is, and what he really is.' - Master Kan'...if a man is wrong about himself and others are wrong about him...who is left to say what he really is?'" - Young Caine
- "'At what point in time can a man be fixed and frozen if he is to live and grow.' - Master Kan 'He must change.' - Young Caine 'As a lowly caterpillar transforms himself into a finer and more beautiful creature.'" - Master Kan
- "It is the way I have chosen." - Caine, when told he's going the wrong way
- "I tried to kill no one." - Caine, when accused of trying to kill those he fought
- "All men have dreams of different kinds. [Good and bad.] There are [the vain dreams, the futile] dreams based on baseless hopes. [There are the dreams that spur and inspire - based upon aspiration to a high ideal.] Then there are the false dreams based on lies to oneself and others." - Master Po (bracketed are words I missed and got from Pilato's KF Book of Wisdom p30)*2*
- "I had hoped for a beginning." - Caine
- "Yours was not an empty dream." - Caine
- "You walk too much with your head down. Ought to keep your eyes up to the sun." - to and about Caine (this advice seems opposite to what he had been taught in the temple)
Information: Caine loses his hat (Carradine says in Spirit/Shaolin*2* this was to mark the moment Kam Yuen became Kung Fu advisor) and acquires a headband which at first covers a head wound. And he also is given a pendant on a chain at the end of this story and wears it around his neck from here on.
#30 (Prod #166215) "THE WAY OF VIOLENCE HAS NO MIND"*2*
Teleplay By:: David Michael Korn (also parts of #47, 51 & 52)
Directed By:: Lee Philips
First Broadcast: ABC, JANUARY 24, 1974
Guest Stars: Gary Merrill, Ron Soble, Robert Ito (also pilot & #17), Victor Sen Yung (also pilot & #9, 21 & 47) Special Guest Star: Fritz Weaver
A mine owner assumes Caine is involved with the Chinese 'Robin Hood' who has been stealing from him. When the mine owner takes the law into his own hands, Caine is almost drowned and a farmer is shot twice.
- "Let me help my way." - Caine
- "You are alive...That is everything." - Caine
- "He is the strongest and the weakest...To be violent is to be weak. Violence has no mind. Is it not wiser to seek a man's love than to desire his swift defeat?" - Master Kan
- "...the way of violence can only end in sorrow." - Caine
- "I walk protected now." - Caine, when told the gang could protect him
- "I am who I am." - Caine
- "He had a way of making everything he said sound important." - about Caine
- "I know [money is important to a lot of people but]...not me." - Caine
- "You wish to be one with the earth. And you are." - Caine to farmer
- "You are [important]." - Caine
- "If a man needs help, it comes." - Caine
- "The praying mantis, speed and patience. Snake, suppleness and rhythm endurance. The tiger, tenacity and power. The dragon, to ride the wind." - Young Caine
- A gun "is an instrument which can fulfill its purpose only through destruction. As the sound injures the ear so its discharge consumes the flesh." - Master Po
- "You must be part fish. I'm going to eyeball you for awhile, Might learn something." - to and about Caine after he is almost drowned
- "What can ridicule bring but more anger and more hatred?" - Caine
- "I am sorry for the hardship I have caused you." - Caine
- "Only from those who wish to do me harm, not him." - Caine, when the farmer's wife says he saved her husband
- "'They laugh at me, Master.' - Caine 'Good. To bring joy to others honors the giver.' - Master Po 'But their laughter is not joyful for it derides me.' - Caine 'Are you hurt by it?' - Po 'Yes.' - Caine 'Because you gave comfort where comfort was needed?'" - Master Po
- "There is a strength in us that can shatter an invincible object with a hand which comes from a strong and disciplined body. There is another strength that allows us to feel the pain of others and give comfort where comfort is needed. This comes from a compassionate heart. True strength must combine both for that is in harmony with the duality of our nature." - Po
- "What you behold is the earth's true treasure." - Caine, on the fertility of the soil versus gold
- "You have given your word!" - Caine says this twice as Captain Lee prepares to break his word
- "You are too good a man. They will hang you if you go out there..." - Caine
- "There is another way...Go. Freedom. Run - away." - Caine
Information: Caine's shirt is destroyed in this episode and the farmer's wife gives him a new one - Carradine says (in THE SPIRIT OF SHAOLIN p. 36)*2* this was done to mark the death of Bruce Lee.
Caine stops a young man from engaging in a gunfight by pointedly looking at him while he is making his preparation (he doesn't say anything).
Anderson's KF Book*2* in talking about this episode again calls people "coolies."
- "Mockery belongs to fools." - Master Kan*2*p85
- "A good man in need asks for help in a quiet voice...and he will always be heard by those meant to hear him." - Caine*2*p86
- "What is gained by using one's strength in violence and anger?" - Master Kan*2*p93
#31 (Prod #166216) "IN UNCERTAIN BONDAGE"
Teleplay By:: Abe Polsky & Ed Waters(also 12, 24, 32 & 43)
Directed By:: Richard Lang (also 5,17,19,22,24,27,29,33,35,37-39,42,45- 6)
First Broadcast: ABC, FEBRUARY 7, 1974
Guest Stars: Warren Vanders, Judy Pace SPECIAL GUEST: Lynda Day George
Caine stumbles onto a kidnapping and is thrown into a pit with a Southern lady who only knows what it is to be served, not what it is to serve others. In flashbacks Master Kan teaches the young Caine to regard serving and being served as the same.
- "Someone is ill. I wish to help." - Caine
- "I am grateful to be of service." - Caine
- "I am grateful." - Caine, when offered a ride
- "Do not the ancients say, 'Rank and reward have no appeal for a man one with himself.'" - Master Kan quoting CHUANG TZU Chapter 17 #3 (Merton rendition of the Legge translation not found in the current Mair translation)
- "Your friends are not true." - Caine
- "That is sad." - Caine, when told someone had been spared the experience of serving others
- "I [am grateful] to you for allowing me to be of service." - Master Kan
- "If in serving one is served and in being served one also serves, are these not folds of the same garment?" - Master Kan
- "A man truly himself will not enrich his own interests and make a virtue of poverty. He goes his way without depending on others, yet is not arrogant that he needs no other. The greatest man is nobody." - Master Kan, quoting CHUANG TZU Chap. 17 #3 (Merton rendition of Legge trans. not in current Mair)
- "The sage says, 'That which shrinks must first expand. That which fails must first be strong. That which is cast down, must first be raised. Before receiving there must first be giving.'" - Kan quoting the TAO TE CHING #36
- "Is it not easy to bow and still honor oneself?" - Master Kan
- "Are we not equally important and not important. I am old, you are young. I am wrinkled, you are smooth. Do these things change the nature we share? Look beyond the surface. See what is real in yourself and others." - Master Kan
- "How can you invite death when there is still life?" - Caine
- "Your need is greater." - Caine, when offering the only food and liquid to his fellow prisoner though he is the one who has been wounded
- "You cared for me. I am grateful." - Caine
- "Serving and being served: folds in the same garment." - Caine
Information: Caine gives away his headband and from now on wears nothing on his head.
#32 (Prod #166217) "NIGHT OF THE OWLS, DAY OF THE DOVES"
Teleplay By: Ed Waters (also parts of #12, 24, 31, 39 & 43)
Story By: Frank Dandridge & Ed Waters
Directed By:: John Llewellyn Moxey (#21, 28 & 34)
First Broadcast: ABC, FEBRUARY 14, 1974
Guest Stars: Barry Atwater, Ken Swofford (also #41), Claire Nono (also #54), Arlene FarberSpecial Guest Star: Anne Francis
Caine becomes involved in a fight between a local cattlemen's association and the women in a house of prostitution to whom he has delivered a will giving them land the cattlemen want.
- "I will help you." - Caine to a man who has been shot
- "Beware of judgments of others. In this imperfect world in which we live, perfection is an illusion. And so the standards by which we seek to measure it are also, themselves, illusions. If perfection is measured by age, grace, color of skin, color of hair, physical or mental prowess, then we are all lacking. And it is well to remember that the harshest judgments are reserved for ourselves." - Master Kan
- "Simple and controlled movements to begin a harmony of mind and body." - Master Kan, on Tai Ch'i
- When asked what he would do if he came into some property, Caine answers, "'I would seek, as I always have, to find myself.' 'I didn't know that was something you had to search for.' 'There is nothing else.'" - Caine
- "A Shaolin is only important to himself." - to Caine
- "What do you want of me?" - Caine
- "You will risk your life and the lives of those girls for a piece of land?" - Caine
- "...if the sun rises, will there not be another day?" - Caine
- "I can do no more." - Caine
- "Is it not foolish to risk your lives?" - Caine
- "The buffalo's horns find no place to tear; the soldier's bullets find... Aren't those the words?" - a Chinese girl, trying to quote TAO #50
- "The greatest soldier wins without a battle." - Caine (Sun Tzu The Art of War)
- "...seek your destiny, Noble Priest." - to Caine
- "I have nothing of value." - Caine to men searching him
- "It will take courage and silence. And you must conquer your fear. But if you are willing to try, I will help." - Caine
- "Can anyone drive?"--Caine, implying that he can't/won't/or does want to
- "You will bring beauty to the land. You will grow strong and bloom." - Caine
Information: "Yield and you need not break." - Caine*2*p79&94
#33 (Prod #166218) "CROSSTIES"*2*
Teleplay By:: Robert Schlitt (also #23)
Directed By:: Richard Lang (also 5,17,19,22,23,27,29,31,35,37-39,42,45- 6)
First Broadcast: ABC, FEBRUARY 21, 1974
Guest Stars: Barry Sullivan (also pilot), John Anderson (also #3), Harrison Ford, Denver Pyle (also #15)Special Guest Star: Andy Robinson
Caine finds himself in a fight being waged against the railroad. The railroad wants to settle and give amnesty to the Youngblood gang. Unfortunately, the Pinkertons, originally hired to wipe out the group, want to finish what they were hired to do.
- "This man is badly hurt." - Caine
- "I am not one of these men." - Caine
- "I am not at war with them." - Caine
- "If you shoot guns, do you not take lives?" - Caine
- "As you cling to the past, the railroad moves ahead." - Caine
- "Will you go on with your war forever?" - Caine
- "Steel against flesh." - Caine, in exasperation while treating a wound
- "He who attacks must vanquish. He who defends must merely survive." - Master Kan
- "If I do not, he will die." - Caine, when told he was risking his life
- "There is nothing I can tell you." - Caine, when asked for information
- "Perhaps you should not offer forgiveness but justice." - Caine, on a pardon for the Youngblood gang
- "'Is not an oath eternal?' - Caine 'But how can you control such a thing as a friendship which requires the assent of two persons? It is well to consider deeply before binding yourself to an ideal, a cause, a man. For what is an oath worth which binds the man who makes it to an unachievable task.'" - Master Kan
- "How else but with love." - Master Kan, when asked how to answer hatred
- "Life is a precious gift." - Caine (which he says in several episodes)
- "One cannot always keep a friend when that friend believes that one has wronged him...Each man has the right to choose his enemies and his friends. He may choose unwisely. But the decision is his alone to make. Then he must live with the consequences. And so must his enemies and his friends." - Kan
- "This man is a slave to his cause. Are you?" - Caine
- "Can you find no way to peace?" - Caine
- "Now! End it! You must seek peace! You must!" - Caine
- "It is finished." - Caine (something he says in several episodes)
- "To make things grow: is this not cause enough for any man?" - Caine
Information: Some flashbacks in this episode are stolen from other episodes and given different voice-overs and story lines. In one Caine, while a disciple, is in the robes of a priest.
Although we don't see Caine drive the horse and wagon, he must have to get the wounded man to the doctor: usually he will only be a passenger.
- "Life is a precious gift. Is a man wrong to value it highly?" - Caine*2*p5
- "What will you gain by taking another man's life?" - Caine*2*p80
#34 (Prod #166219) "THE PASSION OF CHEN YI"
Teleplay By:: John T. Dugan (also #20, 40, 45, 46, 57)
Directed By:: John Llewellyn Moxey (also #28 & 32)
First Broadcast: ABC, FEBRUARY 28, 1974
Guest Stars: Bethel Leslie, Robert Middleton, Mariana Hill, Soon-Taik Oh (also #8 & 48)
Caine tracks down a man who had been another student at the Shaolin temple. But by the time he finds him in the Fort Mesa Territorial Prison, Chen Yi has been sentenced to hang. So Caine pretends to try to rob a bank so he can be thrown into the same prison.
- "We were together in the Shaolin temple. I admired his art." - Caine, when asked if he and Chen Yi were friends
- "An insult is not a gift." - Caine
- "I cannot refuse an honorable challenge." - Caine
- "I would rather we were brothers than combatants." - Caine
- "The life of Chen Yi is of great concern to me." - Caine
- "It is difficult to believe." - Caine
- "They are very beautiful." - Caine, when told carvings are very valuable
- "I do not want to disturb you...I want your money...I wish to rob your bank...Not all your money only what is customary in such cases." - Caine, trying to be thrown into prison but doing so with his usual politeness
- "I am happy to wait." - Caine
- "That is true." - Caine, when accused of trying to rob the bank
- "I sought to rob, not to kill." - Caine, when asked how he expected to rob a bank without a gun
- "'We shared the peace and wisdom of the temple. We were brothers.' - Caine 'We were as far apart as two could be. We were fire and ice.'" - to and about Caine
- "You were taught the ways of Tao. I do not believe you would kill." - Caine
- "I prefer to die without seeing your trusting face staring at me." - Chen Yi to Caine
- "I left." - Caine, when told he was thought to be in prison
- "I have not come for money...I seek knowledge." - Caine
- "I am a friend of Chen Yi." - Caine, although he had earlier refused to claim that they were friends
- "I do not wish him to die tomorrow." - Caine on Chen Yi
- "Who can tell the future?" - Caine
- "I had to." - Caine, when asked why he went where they'd look for him
- "I cannot tell if she loves you or not but I believe she has deceived you. And I believe, perhaps, you love her too much." - Caine
- "The Yin and the Yang are opposite forces yet they exist together in the harmony of a perfect orb." - Master Kan
- "I cannot see you throw your life away uselessly. It offends my honor and the honor of the Shaolin Temple. I must challenge you to ritual combat." - Caine
- "You would not kill anyone." - Caine to Chen Yi
- "...we must face the truth...however great the cost." - Caine
Information: In this episode Caine actually gambles - betting the pendant he was given in #29 in order to get to Chen Yi (he proves he can, indeed, find the pea in the old shell game).
While in prison, Caine does wear shoes for the first time since episode #13.
#35 (Prod #166220) "ARROGANT DRAGON"*2*
Teleplay By:: Katharyn & Michael Michaelian (also #19, 41 & 48)
Story By: Barbara Melzer and Katharyn & Michael Michaelian
Directed By:: Richard Lang (also 5,17,19,22,24,27,29,31,33,37-39,42,45- 6)
First Broadcast: ABC, MARCH 14, 1974
Guest Stars: Richard Loo (also pilot & #3, 23, 35, 48, 50 & 51), Clyde Kusatzu (also #45, 46 & 56), Jocelyne Lew, Edward Walsh, James Hong (also pilot & #21, 42, 49 & 50 and bit parts in others)
Caine, delivering a message given him by a dying man, becomes involved in an internal dispute in a local Tong. The daughter of the former Tong leader begs Caine to help her father who is about to be executed.
- "I am not the Tong." - Caine
- "Forgive me." - Caine
- "I am sorry. I will do what I came to do." - Caine
- "A man in need." - Young Caine's description of a robber
- "...can any man afford such arrogance?" - Po, explaining why he fought
- "You have strong hands and a gentle face." - to and about Caine
- "Why? You do not love me." - Caine, when a woman offers herself to him
- "All know the power of the Shaolin." - Chinese woman
- "Your gift is not needed. I will do what I can." - Caine, refusing the woman's offer
- "You are with child." - Caine
- "Shaolin...descended from the five Shaolin as we are." - on the connection between the Tong and the Shaolin (explained in #23 "The Tong")
- "'He betrayed us. Yet we feed and clothe him.' - Young Caine 'And you disapprove...I am aware of his unsavory adventures. I am aware also of his hunger and cold...Will the earth fall away from under his feet? Will the sun, shining on all else, refuse him light? If sun and earth and water refrain from judgment, who am I to withhold a blanket and a bowl of rice?'" - Master Kan
- "You speak of honor while one man is already dead." - Caine
- "It is said that honor dies where interest lies." - Caine
- "One man is dead. Another will die. How can this bring honor anywhere?" - Caine
- "As with all things of nature, it can be used by man for good or evil." - Master Kan on an herb (Monk's head)
- "Give them the death that they desire but keep the life that is yours." - Caine
- "You must trust me." - Caine
- "I defy this sentence of death!" - Caine
- "Death honors no one." - Caine
- "The priest is very skilled." - about Caine's ability with herbs
- "I will stand for you." - Caine
Information: It is revealed herein that Caine's mother's family is from Hopeh (or Ho-pei or in the new Pinyin spelling "Hebei") Province although the idea put forward at the same time that the Chang part of his name is a maternal family name is not a Chinese concept.
Both KF books *2* claim that Caine initially refuses to help because the situation involves honor and a broken oath, but there is no mention of such a problem in the filmed version.
#36 (Prod #166221) "THE NATURE OF EVIL"
Teleplay By:: Gerald Sanford
Directed By:: Robert Michael Lewis (also #48)
First Broadcast: ABC, MARCH 21, 1974
Guest Stars: Morgan Woodward, Shelly Novak (also #5), Barbara Colby Special Guest Star: John Carradine
On his way to Eureka, Caine gets a feeling which leads him to his old friend Serenity Johnson and a town called Ninevah that is full of fear.
- "The land is more than dust." - Caine
- "If I knew, I would tell you." - Caine, when asked why he's going to Ninevah
- "Are we not friends?" - Caine to Serenity
- "I am not a hunter of men." - Caine
- "It is not so hard to sleep if you have peace and are not afraid." - Caine
- "But you said you did not." - Caine, having seemingly accepted a previous statement as truth even though he seemed to doubt it at the time
- "I am not armed." - Caine
- "I looked deep into myself and saw...evil." - Young Caine
- "'Do you sometimes feel love...and joy? Do you sometimes feel pride in what you have accomplished?...And do you sometimes feel good?...But the threads that make up our human nature are two ended. There is no capacity for feeling pride without an equal capacity for feeling shame. One cannot feel joy unless one can feel despair. We have no capacity for good without an equal capacity for evil.' - Master Po 'Must we not fear evil?' - Young Caine 'Shall we fear our own humanity?' - Master Po 'Must we not fight evil? - Young Caine 'Who can defeat himself? For what is evil but the self seeking to fulfill its own secret needs. All that is necessary is that we face it and choose.'" - Master Po (has basic connection to TAO TE CHING #2)
- "I have seen your face before. Behind me in the mirror." - Caine, when facing an evil man
Information: This story continues a relationship between Caine and Serenity Johnson which starts in #2 "Dark Angel" and ends in #58 "Ambush."
#37 & 38 (Prod #166222-3) "THE CENOTAPH" Part 1 & 2
Teleplay By:: William Kelley (also #10, 18 & 50)
Directed By:: Richard Lang (also 5,17,19,22,24,27,29,31,33,35,39,42,45- 6)
First Broadcast: ABC, APRIL 4, 1974 & APRIL 11, 1974
GUEST STAR: Stephen Gierasch, Michael Pataki, Robert RidgleySpecial Guest Star: Nancy Kwan
While helping a man who seems crazily intent on getting himself killed (by robbers, the law, the army and the Sioux), Caine remembers a woman he met one month after leaving the temple.
- "Half of me." - Caine, when told he's Chinese
- "My masters are practical men. If a thing is not likely to improve one's priesthood, it is seldom discussed. And Shaolin priests have very little to do with being ravished, as a practical matter." - Caine
- "If you are Shaolin, you bear the marks of honor burned on your forearms." - said to Caine
- "A man does not die of caution." - Caine
- "I am in apprehension of what you will do next. It is seldom what you say you will do." - Caine
- "Compassion is the first rule of the Shaolin discipline." - Caine
- "I had never thought such feelings were even available to me." - Caine
- "I do not know." - Caine, when asked if he loves the lady
Pt. 2 - "What kind of a Christian are you, anyway?" - said to Caine
- "I strive for no thing. I strive to reach no place. Unless you could call the Tao a place." - Caine
- "My way is the Tao and I can find it again." - Caine
- "A Shaolin priest does not fight to the death unless there is no other way." - Caine
- "...your plan to work until dark has merit. But I believe by then we will be dead anyway." - Caine, somewhat frustrated
- "I am sorry." - Caine, when his opponent claims to be hurt
- "To die well, one must live well." - Caine
- "What a beautiful and gallant warrior..." - about Caine
- "I could not bring myself to hurt him any more." - Caine, about opponent
- "You lied to me? Is that what I am to believe?" - Caine
- "'Something mysteriously formed,
(...)before heaven and earth.
(...)silence [and the void],
Standing alone, unchanging,
Ever present and in motion.
Perhaps it is the mother of ten thousand things.
I do not know its name.
I call it Tao.
For lack of a better word, I call it great.'
For lack of a better name, we call her Anna." - Caine, mostly quoting
from TAO TE CHING Chapter 25 [F]
- "I cannot accept reward money...I had my reward, the burial of Anna White Eagle." - Caine
Information: The Emperor*1* (not yet crowned but perhaps already referred to as the Emperor) at the time of the flashback herein must have been in his early teens since it is years before the killing of the nephew and the Emperor was dead by the time he was 19 in early 1875 (by which time Caine had been in America for some time).
The concubine, who claims to be the favorite of the Emperor speaks of a gift from the Dowager Empress and it was that Dowager Empress who was the real power in China for most of the last half of the 19th century.*1*
The concubine also speaks of the Emperor not minding if his concubines had other alliances. This is nonsense. The Emperor was not allowed to have concubines who were not Manchu and any child of a Manchu concubine could inherit the throne so such a person was guarded closely to make sure that any child she had was the child of the Emperor (for further information see the book Dragon Empress by Marina Warner 1972). The Dowager Empress herself had been a low ranking concubine, yet her son was to be Emperor.*1*
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